The Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad address the individual rights of children repeatedly. One of the core values of Islam is providing for those that are at a disadvantage or that cannot provide for themselves adequately. Because of this, the individual rights of women, children, minorities, the elderly, orphans, and the handicapped are extensively discussed in Islamic law, the Qur'an, and in the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad.
The Qur'an also urges the Muslim community to take care of its orphans' needs and to make sure that all children have everything they need. Islam is a religion that is characterized by its treatment of children; many Muslim gatherings are characterized by the presence of children either joining in with the adults, or playing among themselves.
The foremost right of all children is to have their basic needs provided for until they become adults. This means that all children must receive food, clothes, and shelter. It is important that they be protected from harm and not suffer from hunger or exposure. The Qur'an also specifies that children must be treated with respect. Parents must also love their children and show them affection, a fundamental right of children as is stated in the Qur'an. The Qur'an also teaches that all siblings must be treated equally, and that no sibling must be given preference financially or in other aspects. In this point, the Prophet Muhammad also stated that it is important to be fair when giving gifts to your children, to treat them equal to one another. The Prophet Muhammad also advised that, if one were to give preferential treatment to one sibling over the other, that preferential treatment should be given to girls rather than to boys. In Islam, all children have the right to receive an education. One of the Prophet Muhammad's sayings states that a good education is the best gift that a father can give to his children. In Islam, parents are also recommended to ensure that their children will be properly provided for with an inheritance.
The actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad show that he was especially kind toward children. There are several recorded instances where the Prophet Muhammad urged parents to treat their children with respect and kindness. For example, there is an anecdote in which a child sitting on the Prophet Muhammad's lap urinated on him. The child, obviously quite young, seemed confused when his father started berating him angrily in front of the gathered crowd. The Prophet Muhammad urged to father to stop, saying that his clothes could be washed, but that the child's self-esteem would be very difficult to restore after having yelled at him in front of every in such a manner.
-- Al Arabiya Digital