This hadeeth does not appear in any of the books of Sunnah, or any books of saheeh (sound) hadeeth or even books of daeef (weak) hadeeths. This indicates that it has no basis and no isnaad. Rather some people have fabricated it and spread it in chat rooms and on some websites, thinking that they can scare some people and stop them giving up prayer. They do not know that they have committed a great sin by doing this. Some scholars even stated that the one who tells a lie about the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) deliberately is a kaafir.
Al-Ameer as-Sanaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
The majority are of the view that telling a lie deliberately about Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is a major sin, because the definition of a major sin is applicable in this case, as the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) mentioned one who tells a lie about him deliberately, and this case comes under the category mentioned in the hadeeth of being deserving of punishment.
It - i.e. this major sin - constitutes kufr. This is indicated by the verse in which Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
So who does more wrong than he who forges a lie against Allah or denies His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.)? Surely, the Mujrimoon (criminals, sinners, disbelievers and polytheists) will never be successful!
This verse describes telling a lie about Allah and denying His signs as being equal, and there is no doubt that denying His signs constitutes kufr. And telling a lie about the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is like telling a lie about Allah, may He be exalted. From this verse, in which Allah denounces this action, we understand that it is a sin and that there is no sin or wrongdoing greater than that. Al-Juawyni said: and because the one who fabricates a lie about Allah or His Messenger may do so in order to waive a well established ruling, and waiving a well established ruling constitutes kufr, because it is rejecting what the Lawgiver has ordained, which constitutes kufr. Moreover, fabricating lies about shareeah (and its rulings) is inevitably indicative of a lack of respect for it. And Allah knows best.
End quote from Tawdeeh al-Afkaar, 2/88
The Standing Committee was asked about this hadeeth and others, and they responded as follows:
These hadeeths cannot be attributed to any of the books of Sunnah, and after researching the matter, we do not know of any basis for them. So what must be done is prevention of their distribution and publishing.
End quote from Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah (vol. 2, 3/259)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allah preserve him) was asked about this hadeeth and he said:
This has no basis as far as I know and there is a strong warning in the Qur'aan and the saheeh Sunnah concerning the one who forsakes prayer, which is sufficient. For example, the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: What stands between a person and kufr is giving up prayer (narrated by Muslim). And the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: The covenant that stands between us and them is the prayer; whoever gives it up has becomes a kaafir. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh at-Targheeb wa't-Tarheeb, 564.
And Allah says concerning the sinners: What has caused you to enter Hell?' 43. They will say: We were not of those who used to offer their Salat (prayers)' [al-Muddathhir 74:42-43]. The primary reason for which they were admitted to Hell is that they failed to offer the prayer; abandoning the prayer constitutes kufr - Allah forbid - and puts a person beyond the pale of Islam, whether he neglects it because he denies that it is obligatory, or he neglects it even though he acknowledges that it is obligatory, except in the case of one who forgets to pray or falls asleep.
With regard to the message quoted by the questioner, I do not know of any basis for it or for what is distributed in some publications, Whoever neglects the prayer will be punished with fifteen punishments. There is no basis for this.
End quote from Noor ala ad-Darb, 20 Muharram 1427 AH (0.17-0.19 on the tape)
So it is not permissible to publish this hadeeth or to attribute it to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him); rather what must be done is warning people about it and explaining that it has no basis in the books of Ahl as-Sunnah.
Whoever would like to see saheeh hadeeths that warn against abandoning or neglecting the prayer should read the book Saheeh at-Targheeb wa't-Tarheeb by Shaykh al-Albaani, 1/136-140
And Allah knows best.
Reproduced from Islam QA