Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad al-Sâlih, professor of Higher Studies at al-Imâm University
The duties of the mother and father are as follows:
Duties of the mother:
The first duty a woman has towards her children actually begins before she is even married. The woman is required to marry choose a Muslim man of good character and get married to him in accordance with Islamic teachings that fulfills all the conditions and requirements of Islamic Law.
During her pregnancy, she has to preserve the fetus in her womb by taking lawful and healthy food and drink to offer her developing baby the best possible environment. She is not allowed to take anything that may injure the fetus or lead to abortion or cause it to miscarry. She must surely refrain from alcoholic drinks and smoking.
After her children are born, the mother should teach them to testify that there is no God but Allah and that is Muhammad is his Messenger. She must pay her utmost attention to teach them the best manners. She should protect her children and safeguard them until they are old enough to live independently. This is a very important duty for her to carry out, since the mother is her children's first teacher.
Duties of the father:
His first duty is to do his best to choose a woman of piety and good character to be his wife.
He must safeguard and care for his wife during her pregnancy and provide for all of her needs.
He must continue to provide for her sustennce and medical care for the entire time that she is nursing her child.
He must afford the baby protection by Allah’s remembrance when it is born and select a good name for the child.
He should have a male child circumcised on the seventh day after it is born.
He should perform an `aqîqah for the child, giving a third of the sacrificial meat in charity, giving a third as gifts to friends, and eating a third with his family.
He must provide for the child’s needs and education until the child is old enough to live independently.
Source: Islam Today